Resources


Community Links

You may find these interesting whether you need a  Doula, Kinesiologist,
Naturopath, or Yoga class...
justbeingtrue.com.au/ (Kinesiologist)
maternitycoach.com.au/ (Maternity and back to work coaching)
yoniyogabirth.com/ (Doula, yoga, birthing, placenta encapsulation)
houseoffertilityandhealing.com.au/ (Acupuncture)
Anne Kohn (Lactation Consultant, Baby whisperer extraordinaire)
thehappybabyclinic.com/ (Mums and Bubs holistic health centre)
pregnancy.com.au/ (info and links for pregnancy, birth and beyond)
jivamuktiyoga.com.au/ (pre, post natal yoga and Mums and Bubs classes)
kylieseaton.com.au/ (naturopath and counsellor)
cbdhealthsydney.com.au (cranio sacral osteopath paediatric specialist)
The Happy Baby Clinic (holistic clinic for you and your bub)
raisingchildren.net.au/ (Parenting info)

Help with Depression and Anxiety:
www.blackdoginstitute.org.au

Things to do with your child...
Magic Yellow Bus 
Playgroup NSW 
Lennox House: Baby music, playgroup, activities 
Parks and Playgrounds: Sydney Park, Camperdown Memorial Park, Steel Park, Victoria Park 
Mums & Bubs Yoga: Lynda Taylor 



The Effects of Massage on Pre and Post Natal Depression


Studies over the past 20 years show massage therapy reduces pre and post natal depression and prematurity. [1]The postpartum period is critical for new mothers, their babies and families, and yet we focus primarily on the baby and not the mother in this crucial time. Increased anxiety, tension and fatigue could adversely effect a new mother’s physical and psychological status. Post Natal Depression (PND) can appear in the first weeks of giving birth, with the overall incidence estimated from 26% to 85% among postpartum mothers in Western countries[2]. Studies over the past 20 years[3] have found the use of massage is effective for reducing labor pain, decreasing stress hormones, alleviating depression and anxiety, and increasing interactive behaviours between parent and child.

Massage therapy treats the depression by physically stimulating the nerve receptors of the nervous system. This in turn causes a release in chemicals into the body, such as the mood-lifting neurotransmitters serotonin or dopamine into the body, that both naturally increases feelings of happiness and well being in the mother. Other internal chemicals associated with stress, such as adrenaline and cortisol, are also reduced with massage. A mother suffering with PND also experiences a shift in brain activity with massage. Massage encourages increase in alpha brain waves known for their relaxing, calming qualities.

This report looks at two studies of effects of Massage Therapy in Healthy Postpartum Mothers. Both studies employed a quasi-experimental between-groups design. In Study A[4] mothers who received aromatherapy massage were compared to a control group who received standard postpartum care. In Study B[5] eighty four depressed pregnant women in their second trimester were assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group who received standard prenatal care.  In Study A thirty-six healthy, first-time mothers with vaginal delivery of a full-term, healthy infant were participants. Sixteen mothers received a 30-minute aromatherapy-massage on the second postpartum day; 20 mothers were in the control group. All mothers in Study A completed four standardised questionnaires before and after the intervention. The results from Study A suggest that aromatherapy-massage might be an effective intervention for postpartum mothers to improve physical and mental status and to facilitate mother-infant bonding. In Study B the massage therapy group participants received two 20 min therapy sessions by their significant others each week for 16 weeks of pregnancy, starting during the second trimester. The relaxation group provided themselves with progressive muscle relaxation sessions on the same time schedule. Immediately after the massage therapy sessions on the first and last days of the 16-week period the women reported lower levels of anxiety and depressed mood and less leg and back pain. By the end of the study the massage group had higher dopamine and serotonin levels and lower levels of cortisol and norepinephrine. These changes may have contributed to the reduced fetal activity and the better neonatal outcome for the massage group (i.e. lesser incidence of prematurity and low birth weight), as well as their better performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment. This data suggests that depressed pregnant women and their offspring can benefit from massage therapy.

Study A Results:
The following standard postpartum questionnaires were applied to all three groups: 1) Maternity Blues Scale; 2) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; 3) Profile of Mood States (POMS); and 4) Feeling toward Baby Scale. In the aromatherapy-massage group, post treatment scores significantly decreased for the Maternity Blues Scale, the State-Anxiety Inventory, and all but one of the Profile of Mood States subscales. Post treatment scores in the intervention group significantly increased in Profile of Mood States-Vigor subscale and the Approach Feeling toward Baby subscale. Scores in the intervention group significantly decreased in Conflict Index of Avoidance/Approach Feeling toward Baby subscale.[6] It was noted that the mothers in the aromatherapy-massage group whose baseline scores indicated maternity blues and high anxiety showed a shift to normal cores after the study. The control group, however, remained in the same or higher scores over the same period of time.

Study B Results:
Massage therapy for depressed pregnant women have led to lower depression scores, less negative affect and lower cortisol levels[7]. Following massage therapy provided by the pregnant woman’s significant other, the women had lower levels of anxiety and depressed mood and less leg and back pain. In addition, by the end of the study, they had higher dopamine and serotonin levels and lower levels of cortisol and norepinephrine. These changes may have contributed to the reduced fetal activity and the better neonatal outcome for the massage group. Fewer infants were born prematurely (0% in the massage group versus 17% in the control group), fewer were born low birth weight and the massage group newborns had better performance on the Brazelton.[8]

The results could have also been influenced by the emotional support received by the mothers though massage. When new mothers have enough emotional and physical support, negative feelings may be lifted.

Conclusion:
The results from the two studies suggest that massage contributes to improved neonatal outcomes, lower incidence of PND, and reduced stress and anxiety in the mother and baby. Additional research is needed, in particular on the long term psychological effects of massage therapy effects on the postpartum mother.


Bibliography:

M Imura, H Misao, H Ushijima, 2006, “The Psychological Effects of Aromatherapy Massage in Healthy Postpartum Mothers”, Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, American College of Nurse-Midwives, Elsevier, USA

T Field, M Diego, M Hernandez-Reif, S Schanberg, C Kuhn, June 2004, “Massage Therapy Effects on Depressed Pregnant Women”, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics Gynecology, Parthenon Publishing Group, USA

M O Hare, J Schlecte, D Lewis, E Wright, 1991, “Prospective Study for Postpartum Blues”, Biological and Psychological factors. Archives of  General Psychiatry, http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/. Viewed 13 April 2011

T Fields, N Grizzile, F Scaidi, S Abrams, Richardson S, C Kuhn, S Schanberg, 1996, “Massage Therapy for Infants of Depressed Mothers”. Infant Behavior Develpoment, USA

T Fields, 1998,  “Maternal Depression Effects on Infants and Early Interventions”, Prev Med, USA

Field T, Diego M, Dieter J, et al, 2004, “Prenatal Depression Effects on the Fetus and the Newborn”, Infant Behavior and Development, Elsevier, USA




[1] T Field, M Diego, M Hernandez-Reif, L Medina, A Hernandez, Yoga and Massage Therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2012
[2] M O hare, J Schlecte, D Lewis, E Wright, Prospective study for postpartum blues, Biological and Psychological factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:801-6.
[3] T Fields, N Grizzile, F Scaidi, S Abrams, Richardson S, C Kuhn, S Schanberg. Massage therapy for infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behave Dev 1996;19:107-12
[4] M Imura, H Misao, H Ushijima, The Psychological Effects of Aromatheray Massage in Healthy Postpartum Mothers, Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, American College of Nurse-Midwives, Elsevier 2006
[5] T Field, M Diego, M Hernandez-Reif, S Schanberg, C Kuhn, Massage Therapy Effects on Depressed Preganant Women, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics Gynecology, Parthenon Publishing Group, June 2004
[6] M Imura, H Misao, H Ushijima, The Psychological Effects of Aromatheray Massage in Healthy Postpartum Mothers, Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, American College of Nurse-Midwives, Elsevier 2006
[7] T Fields. Maternal depression effects on infants and early interventions. Prev Med 1998;27: 200–3
[8] Field T, Diego M, Dieter J, et al. Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behavior and Development 2004;27:216–229

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: only a member of this blog may post a comment.